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As may be seen, most theories of acquired immunity conform, more or less, to iatrochemical ideas.
Thus, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, physics and astronomy came alive in the hands of Copernicus, Galileo, Brahe, Kepler, and Newton; a new mathematics was developed by Napier, Descartes, Newton, and Leibnitz; the beginnings of modern chemistry could be seen rising from the occult practices of medieval alchemists, stimulated in great measure by Robert Boyle; and great contributions to medicine were made by Paracelsus, Vesalius, Paré, Fallopio, Harvey, and Sydenham. However, until the mid-1980s, NO was regarded as an atmospheric pollutant and bacterial metabolite.Nitric oxide (NO) is a hydrophobic, highly labile free radical that is catalytically produced in biological systems from the reduction of L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to form L-citrulline, which produces NO in the process.At one point, he conducted a series of observations on rotting animal flesh, some portions of which had been protected from the air or from other sources of infection.The interpretation of these ‘experiments’ was that the maggots, flies, and ova seen in the exposed samples but rarely in the protected samples, did not have their origin from the meat itself, but rather the rotting flesh only served as suitable nest for the growth and nourishment of the eggs of the animals that were deposited there.Some of the important events in the history of alcoholic fermentation are summarized here.
(1577–1644) explained some of the concepts of fermentation and the chemistry involved in it.
Unlike earlier expulsion theories or later depletion theories, Drake would permit smallpox infection to recur in the same individual and indeed to “concoct new peccant material” from the blood.
But in an interesting and not uncommon identification of the symptoms with the disease itself, he maintained that the morbid matter would escape through the now-distended pores and glands of the skin as fast as it was formed, so that the symptoms (and thus the disease) could not appear a second time in the same individual.
Antoine Lavoisier (1743–94) restored the term “alcohol” and quantitatively determined the amount of carbon dioxide and ethanol produced during fermentation of grape juice and gave us the equation of ethanolic fermentation ().
The “Father of Microbiology” Leeuwenhoek, in 1680, observed yeast cells with his ground lens, for the first time, in fermenting beer, and Schwann, in 1837, recognized it as a fungus and gave it the name “Zuckerpilz” (sugar fungus).
On the one hand there was the iatrochemical school, which interpreted all of physiology as the product of chemical reactions.