In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion.
Our results suggest that this region at the end of Pleistocene was considerably warmer than at present, and that most of the present glaciers in this region are not relics of the Last Glacial period, but are composed of ice formed during the YD and Holocene.Spoken languages are various dialects of Persian (Farsi).Some points of interest: Golestan Palace (a 16th century masterpiece of the Qajar era located in the historic core of Tehran, today a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Azadi Tower (the iconic landmark represents the western entrance to the city); Milad Tower (height: 435.0 m (1,427 ft), part of the International Trade and Convention Center complex); National Museum of Iran (two museums in one, the Museum of Ancient Iran, and the Museum of the Islamic Era); Carpet Museum of Iran (all you want to know about Persian carpets); Mausoleum of Ayatollah Khomeini (tomb of Ruhollah Khomeini and his family); Reza Abbasi Museum (collection of pre-Islamic and Islamic eras Persian art, with objects dating back to the second millennium BC).Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.Since independence, Kyrgyzstan has officially been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the Türksoy community and the United Nations.The majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims.
"Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, and parts of Russia and China.
Because of the processes of migration, conquest, intermarriage, and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins, often stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they now speak closely related languages.
Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for traders, merchants and other travelers from the Far East to Europe.
Just zoom in to see the white marble of the Azadi Monument (Azadi Tower) in Tehran's Azadi Square.
The tower is the most prominent landmark in the city.
This result indicates that the ice cap did not exist in the Bølling-Allerød period (BA), which was the warm period before the YD, and that the BA climate was significantly warmer than at present.