Potential pollution impacts are shown by wet-season averages of total suspended solids (45.0 ± 89.5 mg/l), turbidity (26.1 ± 59.7 NTU), biological oxygen demand (1.20 ± 0.91 mg/l), chlorophyll- (2.47 ± 2.17 μg/l), nitrate (171.1 ± 112.6 μg/l), phosphate (43.1 ± 63.5 μg/l), total phosphorus (85.3 ± 77.2 μg/l), phenol (2.9 ± 17.4 mg/l), faecal coliforms (798 ± 714 MPN/100 ml) and enterococci (32 ± 30 CFU/100 ml) in excess of recommended threshold values for marine conservation and recreational adequacy.
Located in the heart of the walled city near many of the museums is Plaza Bolivar, a beautiful park that makes it easy to get away from the hustle and bustle of the rest of the city.Surface sediments were sampled from the bay's bottom every three months and analyzed for various trace metals.Seasonal variability was observed in nearly all of the water quality parameters, with higher concentrations usually coinciding with the high runoff season.Originally built as dungeons during civil wars in the 19th century, today the structure is home to boutiques, shops, and other businesses which offer traditional Colombian products.As it turned out, many of the actual cells of the dungeon were under sea level when the tide rose, so prisoners at the time would often be up to their knees in seawater.Large freshwater discharges from the Dique Canal into the south of the bay produce estuarine conditions strongly related to the seasonal variability of runoff from the Magdalena River watershed.
The bay's seasonal conditions may be characterized by three seasons: strong winds/low runoff (Jan.–April), weak winds/intermediate runoff (May–Aug.), and weak winds/high runoff (Sept.–Dec.).
This study addresses the following research question: What is the current extent of water and sediment pollution in Cartagena Bay and which factors control its seasonal variability?
Monthly seawater samples (Sept.2014–Aug.2015) were taken from surface and bottom depths at 16 stations in and around Cartagena Bay and analyzed for physical, chemical, and biological parameters.
Sediments from the bay's bottom were found to have concentrations of mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper and nickel in excess of the Threshold Effects Levels (TEL) used as an indicator of potential impacts on marine life.
Colombia has no shortage of cities conducive to some excellent mongering.
The lush trees and winding paths create a cool, relaxing atmosphere - making this a great place to relax and cool off, especially on a hot day.