Language of dating
A word may enter a language as a loanword (as a word from one language adopted by speakers of another language), through derivational morphology by combining pre-existing elements in the language, by a hybrid of these two processes called phono-semantic matching, or in several other minor ways.
Languages may be related by convergence through borrowing or by genetic descent, thus languages can change and are also able to cross-relate.Most research is being carried out on the subsequent development of these languages, in particular, the development of the modern standard varieties.Some scholars have undertaken studies attempting to establish super-families, linking, for example, Indo-European, Uralic, and other families into Nostratic. The information necessary to establish relatedness becomes less available as the time depth is increased.Synchronic variation is linguistic change in progress.Synchronic and diachronic approaches can reach quite different conclusions.For example, a Germanic strong verb like English sing - sang - sung is irregular when viewed synchronically: the native speaker's brain processes these as learned forms, whereas the derived forms of regular verbs are processed quite differently, by the application of productive rules (for example, adding -ed to the basic form of a verb as in walk - walked).
This is an insight of psycholinguistics, relevant also for language didactics, both of which are synchronic disciplines.
Primacy is accorded to synchronic linguistics, and diachronic linguistics is defined as the study of successive synchronic stages.
Saussure's clear demarcation, however, has had both defenders and critics.
In practice, however, it is often unclear how to integrate the linguistic evidence with the archaeological or genetic evidence.
For example, there are numerous theories concerning the homeland and early movements of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, each with its own interpretation of the archaeological record.
the study of ancient texts and documents dating back to antiquity.