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Pope Benedict VIII visited Bamberg in 1020 to meet Henry II for discussions concerning the Holy Roman Empire.While he was here he placed the diocese in direct dependence on the Holy See.
The town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle The area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, and the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg.The old town of Bamberg is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, primarily because of its authentic medieval appearance. The new cathedral, built by Saint Otto of Bamberg, was consecrated in 1111 and in the 13th century received its present late-Romanesque form.The town established a documentation centre in 2005 to support World Heritage activities. The cathedral is 94 m (308 ft) long, 28 m (92 ft) wide, 26 m (85 ft) high, and the four towers are each about 81 m (266 ft) high. Hoffmann, who was very impressed by the building, lived there for a while.In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, who were to cede portions of their dioceses, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined, and Pope John XVIII granted the papal confirmation in the same year.Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, which was consecrated .It is situated on the Regnitz river, 3 km (1.9 mi) before it flows into the Main river.
Its geography is shaped by the Regnitz and by the foothills of the Steigerwald, part of the German uplands.
Bamberg was chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but still within Bavaria.
Bamberg is located in Franconia, 63 km (39 mi) north of Nuremberg by railway and 101 km (63 mi) east of Würzburg, also by rail.
This has led to Bamberg being called the "Franconian Rome" — although a running joke among Bamberg's tour guides is to refer to Rome instead as the "Italian Bamberg".
The hills are Cathedral Hill, Michaelsberg, Kaulberg/Obere Pfarre, Stefansberg, Jakobsberg, Altenburger Hill and Abtsberg.
By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory of this see was reduced nearly one half in extent.