Dating bases wikipedia
The first interpretation is that the chacmool is an offering table (or tlamanalco) to receive gifts such as pulque, tamales, tortillas, tobacco, turkeys, feathers and incense.The second is that the chacmool was a cuauhxicalli to receive blood and human hearts; this use is particularly relevant to the Aztecs, who used a cuauhxicalli bowl in place of the usual disc-altar.
The figure may be lying on its back or on its side and the abdomen can be sunken below the level of the chest and knees or at the same level. Some of the figures are richly attired whilst others are almost naked.Although the name chacmool was inappropriately applied, it has become a useful label to link stylistically similar sculptures from different regions and periods without imposing a unified interpretation.Examples of chacmool sculptures have been found widely across Mesoamerica from Michoacan in Mexico down to El Salvador.The ancient name for these type of sculptures is unknown.The name "chacmool" is attributed to Augustus Le Plongeon, who excavated one of the statues at Chichen Itza in 1875.The chacmool form of sculpture first appeared around the 9th century AD in the Valley of Mexico and the northern Yucatán Peninsula.
The chacmool is a distinctive form of Mesoamerican sculpture representing a reclining figure with its head facing 90 degrees from the front, leaning on its elbows and supporting a bowl or a disk upon its chest.
However, Tula and Chichen Itza may have developed simultaneously with rapid communication of the chacmool form from one city to the other.
The wider variety of chacmool forms at Chichen Itza has also been used to support the development of the form there; no two possess identical form, dress and proportions.
It has also been suggested that chacmools were used as a techcatl, or sacrificial stone over which victims were stretched so their hearts could be cut from their chests.
The Crónica Mexicayotl describes such a sacrificial stone as sculpted in the form of a person with a twisted head.
At Tula the chacmools have a standardised form with little variation in position or proportions.