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Dating bases wikipedia

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The chacmool form of sculpture first appeared around the 9th century AD in the Valley of Mexico and the northern Yucatán Peninsula.The chacmool is a distinctive form of Mesoamerican sculpture representing a reclining figure with its head facing 90 degrees from the front, leaning on its elbows and supporting a bowl or a disk upon its chest.

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The first was discovered in 1943, on the junction of Venustiano Carranza and Pino Suarez, about two blocks south of the temple itself.In an Aztec example the receptacle is a cuauhxicalli (a stone bowl to receive sacrificed human hearts).Chacmools were often associated with sacrificial stones or thrones.Le Plongeon believed the statue, which he had found buried beneath the Platform of the Eagles and the Jaguars, depicted a former ruler of Chichen Itza.Le Plongeon named the statue "chaacmol", which he translated from the Maya as "thundering paw." Le Plongeon's sponsor, Stephen Salisbury of Worcester, Massachusetts, published Le Plongeon's find, but revised the spelling to "Chac-Mool." Le Plongeon sought permission from Mexico's president to display the statue at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, a request that was denied.These bowls may have accepted these blood offerings directly or may have been holders for portable cuauhxicalli bowls that were placed within them.

A chacmool from Tlaxcala has a bloodied heart sculpted on the underside, supporting this interpretation.

At Tula the chacmools have a standardised form with little variation in position or proportions.

Miller has proposed that the chacmool developed out of Classic Maya iconography and underwent a transition into three dimensional sculpture at Chichen Itza, perhaps spurred by the influence of central Mexican sculptural forms.

Chacmools do not appear to have been worshipped, since they are never found within inner sanctuary of temples or shrines; it appears to have rather been a piece of religious paraphernalia used by the priesthood in the course of their duties.

Three uses have generally been attributed to chacmools.

After the first appearance of the form, it was rapidly disseminated throughout Mesoamerica, spreading as far south as Costa Rica.