To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages.
Finally, on the northwestern frontier of Arabia, various languages known to scholars as Thamudic B, Thamudic D, Safaitic, and Hismaic are attested.By the 4th century CE, the Nabataean Aramaic writing system had come to express varieties of Arabic other than that of the Nabataeans.In late pre-Islamic times, a transdialectal and transcommunal variety of Arabic emerged in the Hijaz which continued living its parallel life after literary Arabic had been institutionally standardized in the 2nd and 3rd century of the Hijra, most strongly in Judeo-Christian texts, keeping alive ancient features eliminated from the "learned" tradition (Classical Arabic).During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy.As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it.Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus.
Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Saracens from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries.
The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: Arabia boasted a wide variety of Semitic languages in antiquity.
In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family (e.g. It is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages (non-Central Semitic languages) were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
For the various vernaculars, see varieties of Arabic. Arabic alphabet Arabic Braille Syriac alphabet (Garshuni) Hebrew alphabet (Judeo-Arabic languages) Greek alphabet (Cypriot Maronite Arabic) Latin script (Romanized Arabic alphabet, Maltese alphabet) (Maltese, Lebanese Arabic, Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Tunisian Arabic)This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.
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