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And enforcement on employers would also have to be tougher, he said.One of the challenges Arizona faced is that enforcement of the mandate was often lax.

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But, according to one study from researchers at the Public Policy Institute of California, that wasn't exactly the case."There aren't any follow ups and there aren't any audits," said Alex Nowrasteh, an immigration policy analyst at the Cato Institute.According to Arizona law, employers who intentionally hire an unauthorized worker could lose their business permit for up to 10 days for a first offense or lose their business altogether on a second offense.But Lofstrom warns that making E-Verify mandatory nationwide may not have the same impact that it did in Arizona.After all, many of Arizona's undocumented immigrants were able to easily relocate next door to California, where laws are more lenient. S.-wide program, however, some immigrants may be forced to leave the country, but many more would likely remain in the country and join the informal economy, he said.E-Verify (formerly known as the Basic Pilot program) is a primarily voluntary, Internet-based program created in 1997 that supplements the I-9 employment eligibility verification process. While it is voluntary for most employers, it is mandatory for some federal contractors and employers in four states.

citizen and noncitizen employees’ employment eligibility with the U. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Social Security Administration (SSA).

While Westat found that E-Verify had improved considerably over time, challenges remained, especially with how well the tool can sift out fraudulent information.

"Due to its inability to detect identity fraud, E-Verify remains unable to identify approximately half of workers without employment authorization," the Rockville, Maryland-based firm wrote in its report for the Department of Homeland Security.

CATO said the courts levied the minimum punishments allowed against these businesses, shutting them down temporarily.

Nowrasteh added that it would likely be difficult to get politicians to support a mandate to use E-Verify nationwide because they wouldn't want to fall on the wrong side of business owners.

Daniel Scarpinato, a spokesperson for Arizona Governor Doug Ducey, said the governor supports the use of E-Verify for background checks.